Piezo, CAP, Micropirani, combi, hot and cold cathode sensors are used in this range. They work according to various measuring principles. The measuring principles which vacuum gauges use for the high vacuum range mainly depend on the type of gas involved.
Additionally, the selection of the right vacuum gauge depends not only on the measuring range but also on the operating conditions such as mechanical vibrations, chemical contaminations and accuracy required.
Some instruments can also be used as controllers due to intelligent integrated electronics.